TOC

Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements

Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements by SuppsAdvisor.com
Alex Platt

05/21/2020 · 20 min reading

Before I became a personal trainer, I first started exercising in hopes of completing an obstacle course race. Since I had never been very athletic before then, I was struggling with tiring too fast during workouts.

I consulted a friend who had been a personal trainer for 10 years. She recommended a pre-workout supplement to boost my energy and optimize my workout performance.

What Is a Pre-Workout Supplement?

Pre-workout supplements aim to boost your workout performance, mostly by increasing your energy. Depending on the ingredients, some can improve muscle recovery and increase your focus.

While pre-workout supplements aren’t for everyone, many athletes swear by these products. Keep in mind that pre-workout supplements won’t suddenly make you bigger and stronger. But they can help you stay focused and energized through more intense or prolonged training.

The Pros and Cons of Pre-Workout Supplements

No dietary supplement will fit every person. Pre-workout supplements have some pros and cons of their own.

The Benefits

Taking a pre-workout supplement can increase your energy, endurance, and focus. Enhanced workout sessions inevitably lead to an increase in results and progress.

Many pre-workouts contain ingredients that are popular separately, like creatine and BCAAs. Buying a pre-workout that includes these ingredients can knock out the need to spend so much extra money on other supplements.

The Downside

The primary focus of pre-workout supplements is to increase your energy. This happens by means of stimulants. Most pre-workouts contain caffeine and other herbal stimulants.

Some people don’t tolerate stimulants well. Excess caffeine consumption can lead to side effects like high blood pressure, insomnia, and anxiety.

It’s not uncommon to find artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols in pre-workout supplements. These sweeteners can cause intestinal distress, leading to diarrhea, gas, and bloating. If your supplement contains artificial sweeteners, start with small doses to assess tolerance.

Common Ingredients in Pre-Workout Supplements

The list of ingredients from supplement to supplement vary wildly. But, there are some ingredients that are more common than others.

  1. Caffeine
    Caffeine is a stimulant that is commonly found in supplements, tea, soda, and energy drinks. It’s a potent energy booster that can also suppress your appetite.
  2. Creatine
    Creatine 16 is a combination of 3 amino acids called arginine, glycine, and methionine. Your body uses creatine to produce more ATP, which is the main form of energy for your muscles.
  3. BCAAs
    BCAAs 15, or Branched-Chain Amino Acids, consist of 3 essential amino acids called leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These promote muscle growth, reduce muscle damage, increase recovery, and provides muscle energy.
  4. Nitric oxide boosters
    Nitric oxide boosters cause your blood vessels to dilate, allowing more oxygen and nutrients to reach your muscles. The most popular nitric oxide booster in pre-workouts is l-citrulline (or citrulline malate). Citrulline is naturally found in a popular favorite fruit – watermelon! Citrulline malate 14 may improve your workout endurance with less muscle soreness.
  5. Beta-Alanine
    Beta-alanine works to counteract the buildup of acid that occurs during intense exercise. Without the acidity, you can endure longer, more intense exercise sessions.
  6. L-tyrosine, l-theanine, and l-carnitine
    These ingredients are included for energy, focus, and endurance. L-carnitine 2 can also support the waste-removal process that detoxifies the cells in your body.
  7. Betaine
    Betaine is a popular supplement, especially among bodybuilders. It is an amino acid that boosts protein synthesis. As studies 6 have shown, betaine supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and decreased body fat.
  8. Taurine
    Most people recognize taurine 3 from popular energy drinks. Taurine has several benefits. It can help your body burn fat instead of carbs, improve your mood and focus, and boost endurance.
  9. Alpha-GPC
    When your body breaks down a certain fatty acid found in some plants and soy, it releases the alpha-GPC 10. The presence of alpha-GPC promotes the production of acetylcholine, which is vital to memory and brain health. Studies 4 also show that alpha-GPC supplementation can lead to improved athletic performance.
  10. Theobromine
    Theobromine 19 is mostly sourced from cocoa beans and tea. The molecular structure of theobromine is very similar to caffeine. It also has similar effects to caffeine, such as boosting your energy. While it has stimulant effects, it doesn’t raise your blood pressure like other stimulants. It also doesn’t affect your nervous system like caffeine does.

Tips & Safety

First and foremost, consult your doctor if you have medical conditions or take daily medications. Make sure that the ingredients won’t cause problems with your health or medications.

  • Some stimulants can cause heart problems and high blood pressure.
  • Supplements aren’t FDA regulated, so some squeeze by with shady ingredients or unsafe practices. Some brands voluntarily use FDA approved or certified Good Manufacturing Practice facilities. Some products also undergo 3rd-party testing for quality and safety. Check for approval stamps or information on the product container.
  • Stay informed. Thoroughly research the product, company, and ingredients.
  • Assess your tolerance of caffeine or other stimulants. If someone is sensitive to stimulants, they may get jittery and anxious. Some people may have trouble sleeping after consuming stimulants.
  • If you are routinely tested for banned substances, choose your supplement wisely. Some substances can masquerade under alternative names. For instance, bitter orange extract is popular in supplements because it contains synephrine. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) listed synephrine as a banned substance on their 2019-2020 list 17.

Top 10 Best Pre-Workout Supplements

If you’ve made it this far, you must be considering adding pre-workout supplements to your routine! Wading through thousands of products can be frustrating and confusing. Fear not, for I have compiled a top 10 list complete with a thorough review!

1 Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout
See More Reviews
Check price

Transparent Labs offers high-quality, pure ingredients in their bulk pre-workout powder. They also earn the trust and loyalty of their consumers by being 100% transparent with their label. This particular supplement is designed specifically for athletes in their bulk phase.

A good chunk of the ingredients are ones we already know! It includes:

  • Caffeine
  • Citrulline Malate
  • Beta-Alanine
  • BCAAs
  • Betaine
  • Taurine
  • L-Tyrosine
  • L-Theanine
  • Another nitric oxide booster called l-norvaline.

But it also includes several other beneficial ingredients! For instance, it contains choline bitartrate. Choline bitartrate is an alternative ingredient to using alpha-GPC. Like alpha-GPC, choline supplementation increases acetylcholine production, leading to improved neural health.

Another new ingredient is levodopa or L-Dopa. L-Dopa is a precursor to the wonderfully beneficial neurotransmitter called dopamine. Dopamine production is a critical part of brain health. It allows your brain cells to communicate and coordinate. L-Dopa often appears on ingredient labels as Mucuna Pruriens.

This supplement also contains synephrine. Synephrine is claimed to increase energy, improve focus, and promote fat burning. As I mentioned, some rigorous athletic associations list synephrine as a banned substance.

To complement the synephrine, this product includes hordenine. The combination of hordenine and synephrine can promote increased metabolism and energy. Hordenine is similar to the banned substance called ephedra. But, unlike ephedra, hordenine doesn’t cause episodes of high blood pressure.

One ingredient you should be careful with is BioPerine. BioPerine comes from the extract of black pepper fruit, and it has recently gained attention. It enhances your body’s ability to absorb more of the other ingredients. If you take medications, consult your doctor before consuming BioPerine. It can lead to higher concentrations of medication in your system, which can cause serious problems.

This is also one of the best pre-workouts for men thanks to the testosterone support blend it contains! This blend boosts the production of testosterone using zinc, boron, and vitamin D3.

Pros

  • It’s an excellent pre-workout supplement for men
  • It has no artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives
  • Gluten-free & non-GMO
  • They are transparent about their ingredients
  • Transparent Labs backs their claims with scientific evidence
  • The ingredients are great for energy, endurance, and brain health
  • 6 delicious fruit flavors to choose from

Cons

  • Synephrine is a banned substance for some athletic leagues
  • BioPerine can be dangerous if you take medication
  • It isn’t suitable for people that are sensitive to caffeine or other stimulants

2 Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Pre-Workout

Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Pre-Workout
See More Reviews
Check price

Optimum Nutrition offers a solid, practical pre-workout powder. This supplement is packed with proven, recognizable ingredients!

For starters, we have already discussed all but 2 of the ingredients. These include:

  • Creatine
  • Caffeine
  • L-carnitine
  • L-tyrosine
  • L-citrulline
  • Beta-alanine

Instead of BioPerine, this brand uses a similar natural compound called AstraGin. AstraGin increases your absorption of the other ingredients. Again, if you take medication, consult your doctor before consuming AstraGin.

The other ingredient is citrus bioflavonoid complex. This complex is known in the health and fitness industry for being rich in antioxidants! Antioxidants eliminate free radicals from cells and help protect cells against damage.

One great point about this product is its affordability! If you can’t afford to spend an arm and a leg on supplements, Optimum Nutrition is an excellent choice!

The big downside of this supplement is that it contains artificial colors, flavors, and sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners can cause digestive system problems in some people. If you have any sensitivities to allergies to food dyes, be careful with this product!

Pros

  • 4 tasty flavor choices
  • It’s an affordable option
  • The supplements are tested for banned substances

Cons

  • It contains artificial colors, flavors, and sweeteners
  • It’s not suitable for those who are sensitive to stimulants

3 VINTAGE BLAST Pre-Workout

VINTAGE BLAST Pre-Workout
See More Reviews
Check price

VINTAGE BLAST by Old School Labs uses a unique 2-stage formula. It aims to give you a sustained boost of endurance, performance, and recovery!

Old School Labs takes advantage of the way your body digests different ingredients. With ingredients that break down at varying rates, you don’t have to worry about crashing mid-workout! This means you can exercise harder for longer stretches.

This time, we already know all but 1 ingredient on the list! It contains:

  • Caffeine
  • Microencapsulated caffeine
  • L-citrulline malate
  • Beta-alanine
  • L-arginine
  • L-carnitine
  • L-tyrosine

So why is caffeine listed twice? Because of the 2 stages, of course! You get an initial dose of caffeine at the start, thanks to caffeine anhydrous. As time goes on, the microencapsulated caffeine will break down and take effect. The website states that the microencapsulate caffeine is effective for around 3 hours.

The final ingredient makes this supplement another fantastic choice for men. D-aspartic acid is an amino acid that regulates testosterone synthesis. Supplementing with D-aspartic acid can promote healthy testosterone production.

Don’t worry, ladies! D-aspartic acid won’t pump you full of testosterone. For women, D-aspartic acid can potentially regulate ovulation. Some research studies 8 suggest that it does so by regulating the reproductive hormone known as LH, or luteinizing hormone.

Old School Labs makes it clear that they take pride in their quality standards and practices. Their facilities are FDA certified, and products undergo 3rd-party testing for quality and banned substances.

Old School Labs makes it clear that they take pride in their quality standards and practices. Their facilities are FDA certified, and products undergo 3rd-party testing for quality and banned substances.

  • artificial ingredients
  • calories
  • carbs
  • sugars

Be careful when taking a product with stimulants. Since the microencapsulated caffeine lasts longer, I recommend using this product early in the day. If you take it too late, you may have trouble sleeping.

Unfortunately, the only available flavor is blueberry lemonade. If you can’t stomach the flavor, that could be a dealbreaker!

Pros

  • Boosts endurance, performance, and recovery
  • A unique 2-stage formula for sustained release
  • Keto-friendly
  • 100% vegetarian
  • Gluten-free & non-GMO
  • No artificial ingredients
  • 0 calories, 0 carbs, 0 sugars
  • FDA certified facility
  • 3rd-party quality and banned substance testing

Cons

  • Be cautious with the high stimulant content
  • Microencapsulated caffeine lasts longer and can disrupt sleep
  • Only available in Blueberry Lemonade flavor.

4 Legion Pulse Pre-Workout

Legion Pulse Pre-Workout
See More Reviews
Check price

Legion Athletics offers a high-quality, all-natural pre-workout option! Legion Athletics was founded by Mike Mathews. Mathews is a bestselling fitness author that is determined to squash lies in the supplement industry.

The products come from GMP certified facilities, and they undergo strict testing. Legion Pulse is quality-tested and certified by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF). It is also Labdoor certified. Labdoor performs thorough screenings for over 200 banned substances. Once it passes the Labdoor certification, it is approved for official sports use!

The ingredient list is also delightfully simple and natural. It contains all-natural flavors and sweeteners, promises to be 100% natural. It aims to boost energy, endurance, muscle gain, strength, and mood! It includes:

  • L-citrulline malate
  • Beta-alanine
  • Betaine
  • Caffeine
  • L-theanine
  • Alpha-GPC

If caffeine is bothersome to you, this supplement isn’t a good fit. It contains a whopping 350 mg dose, which can cause jitters, anxiety, and a racing heart. If you value sleep, don’t take it near bedtime!

Compared to other pre-workouts, Legion Pulse isn’t very affordable. You get fewer servings per container than other products at the same price. Although it is high-quality, the price isn’t reasonable for those on a tight budget.

Pros

  • 13 flavor options
  • 100% all-natural
  • Boosts energy, endurance, muscle gain, strength, and mood
  • Certified GMP facility
  • Labdoor certified for official sports use
  • Products are tested for quality and purity by NSF

Cons

  • The high citrulline malate content makes it prone to clumping
  • Less affordable than other options
  • Avoid if you have a sensitivity to caffeine. It has a large 350 mg dose of caffeine per serving.

5 Pre JYM Pre-Workout Powder

Pre JYM Pre-Workout Powder
See More Reviews
Check price

Pre JYM comes to us from Jim Stoppani, Ph.D. Jim has a doctorate degree in exercise physiology and a minor in biochemistry. Jim decided to bring his extensive knowledge to the supplement market!

Pre JYM has a solid mix of ingredients we already know, plus a few new ones! Here are the ones we know:

  • Creatine
  • Beta-alanine
  • Betaine
  • Taurine
  • Alpha-GPC
  • Citrulline malate
  • BCAAs
  • L-tyrosine
  • Caffeine
  • Bioperine

The first new ingredient is N-acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) 1. NAC is the precursor to the amino acid L-cysteine. It has powerful antioxidant properties that can reduce oxidative stress and eliminate free radicals.

It also contains beetroot extract. Beetroot extract is a great ingredient for boosting nitric oxide levels 7.

Finally, it adds Huperzine-A 11. This chemical increases your production of acetylcholine, leading to improved brain function!

Buyer beware! This product has 300 mg of caffeine per serving. The company recommends using this pre-workout at least 6 hours before bedtime!

Pre JYM contains artificial flavors, sweeteners, and colors. There’s a chance that it contains traces of food allergens like egg, dairy, soy, tree nuts, and wheat. This is due to using a facility that processes other products with those ingredients.

After extensive research, I couldn’t find information about their facility or product testing. Without any stamps of approval being displayed, I can’t guarantee any of their quality standards. That doesn’t mean they aren’t certified or performing quality tests, I just couldn’t find it!

Pros

  • Available in 10 flavors
  • Developed by an experienced physiologist
  • It claims to improve strength, endurance, and focus

Cons

  • It has a high dose of caffeine, which could cause side effects
  • You can experience insomnia if you consume Pre JYM less than 6 hours before bedtime
  • Remember to be careful with BioPerine if you take medications
  • It contains artificial colors, flavors, and sweeteners
  • I was unable to verify facility and product quality standards
  • It may contain traces of common food allergies

6 ALPHA GX7 Pre-Workout

ALPHA GX7 Pre-Workout
See More Reviews
Check price

Alpha GX7 claims to maximize your energy, focus, and workout performance! The star ingredient in this pre-workout is the massive dose of beta-alanine. The high dose is claimed to cause a significant rise in carnosine 18, which is packed with antioxidants.

It includes other beneficial ingredients, such as:

  • Arginine
  • Citrulline malate
  • L-carnitine
  • L-Dopa
  • Taurine
  • Caffeine
  • Theobromine

It also introduces yet another new ingredient called Yohimbine. Yohimbine 13 is a natural fat-burning compound present in the bark of native African Yohimbe trees. Yohimbine is also considered a natural stimulant.

This product is keto-friendly, but it does contain artificial ingredients. If you have allergies to artificial colors, flavors, or sweeteners, steer clear!

While the company claims that the products are 3rd-party tested for quality, I couldn’t locate specifics. I also couldn’t find stamps of approval for any facility certifications. Again, that doesn’t mean that it isn’t certified, just that it isn’t openly displayed.

Pros

  • 3 flavor choices
  • It aims to maximize energy, focus, and workout performance
  • It contains a significant amount of Beta-alanine for a huge increase in carnosine levels
  • It’s keto-friendly
  • It’s an affordable option

Cons

  • 250 mg of caffeine may cause unpleasant symptoms
  • It contains artificial colors, flavors, and sweeteners
  • I couldn’t verify information about facility certifications or product testing

7 NITROSURGE Pre-Workout Supplement

NITROSURGE Pre-Workout Supplement
See More Reviews
Check price

NITROSURGE includes a reliable set of high-quality ingredients!

The company takes pride in its label transparency and quality. This supplement happens to contain only the ingredients that we already know! It includes:

  • L-citrulline
  • Beta-alanine
  • Betaine
  • Caffeine
  • L-theanine
  • Theobromine
  • AstraGin

Unlike other options, NITROSURGE has a low dose of caffeine. It’s just enough to give you a small boost with less risk of uncomfortable side effects! It still contains 180 mg of caffeine, which is equal to approximately 2 cups of coffee.

This pre-workout powder is free of fillers and dyes. But it contains artificial flavors and sweeteners. Overall, the ingredients are great for a powerful nitric oxide boost! It’s also one of the more affordable options on the list.

While I’m unsure of 3rd-party testing, the product comes from a certified GMP facility!

Pros

  • 9 flavors
  • Aims to improve focus, muscle growth, power, and energy
  • An affordable option
  • Full of nitric oxide boosters
  • The brand values label transparency
  • No fillers or dyes
  • Contains less caffeine than most options

Cons

  • It contains artificial flavors and sweeteners
  • The caffeine content may still be bothersome for some people
  • Be careful with products containing AstraGin if you take medications

8 C4 Original Pre-Workout Powder

C4 Original Pre-Workout Powder
See More Reviews
Check price

Another affordable low-caffeine option is C4! It only contains 150 mg, which may be more tolerable for some people. Don’t worry; it makes up for the lower caffeine using the other ingredients in their “Explosive Energy” blend!

C4 contains several vitamins and minerals, along with plenty of familiar ingredients, such as:

  • Beta-alanine
  • Creatine
  • Arginine
  • L-tyrosine
  • Caffeine
  • L-Dopa

The only new ingredient is theacrine. Theacrine is a naturally occurring substance similar to caffeine. It comes from some types of coffee and tea, herrania plants, and theocrama plants. Studies 5 show that theacrine notably increased energy and mood.

C4 products are NSF certified for official sports use. It also comes with double the servings for the same price as most options!

This powder has 0 calories or sugars, and less than 1 gram of carbs! Although it doesn’t contain artificial colors or dyes, it does contain artificial flavors. The powder is also prone to clumping, so you may need to break it up.

Pros

  • 8 flavors
  • Double servings per container for the same price as other options
  • It contains several vitamins and minerals
  • Low caffeine content
  • NSF certified for sports use
  • 0 calories, 0 sugars, less than 1 gram of carbs
  • No artificial colors or dyes
  • Explosive Energy blend for a potent energy boost

Cons

  • The other natural stimulants can cause side effects in those with a caffeine sensitivity
  • It contains artificial flavors
  • Prone to clumping

9 Genius Pre-Workout Powder

Genius Pre-Workout Powder
See More Reviews
Check price

If you need a 100% caffeine-free pre-workout, Genius has your back! Genius uses natural compounds to bring you energy without caffeine. The brand promises to bring you a powerful energy boost without the need for stimulants.

Just when you think you’ve learned all the ingredients, Genius brings us more new ones! The ingredients we already know are:

  • L-citrulline malate
  • Beta-alanine
  • Betaine
  • L-tyrosine
  • L-arginine
  • Taurine
  • Alpha-GPC
  • Theobromine
  • AstraGin
  • Huperzine-A

One new ingredient, HICA, is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. It is commonly used in supplements for muscle growth and decreased soreness. Another ingredient, Rhodiola Rosea 12, is a popular herb used to fight fatigue and exhaustion. The final addition, ElevATP, is said to improve muscle growth, strength, and body composition.

The product is vegan, gluten-free, and non-GMO. It also contains no artificial colors, flavors, or dyes. Genius supplements also come from a GMP certified facility, and they are Labdoor certified for sports use.

Potential downsides to this option include cost and flavor. The price is the same as other options, but for only 20 servings. It also only comes in one flavor, which is green apple. If you aren’t a fan of the green apple flavor, you’re stuck dealing with it or choosing another pre-workout.

Pros

  • An excellent caffeine-free option
  • Nitric oxide powerhouse
  • Labdoor tested and certified for sport
  • No artificial colors, flavors, or dyes
  • Vegan, gluten-free, and non-GMO
  • The facility is GMP certified
  • Transparent label

Cons

  • May not provide the same energy boost as caffeinated products
  • Fewer servings for the price
  • Only available in green apple flavor
  • Be careful with products containing AstraGin if you take medications

10 RARI Nutrition – Infinity Pre-Workout Powder

RARI Nutrition - Infinity Pre-Workout Powder
See More Reviews
Check price

Last but not least, RARI Nutrition offers a solid pre-workout contender. It is also another low-caffeine option for those who can’t handle high doses.

It includes agmatine sulfate 9, which your body naturally creates from arginine. Agmatine sulfate is said to improve athletic performance. It also contains:

  • vitamins and minerals
  • caffeine
  • L-tyrosine
  • L-citrulline malate
  • Beta-alanine
  • BioPerine

This powder is keto-friendly, vegan, and gluten-free. All ingredients are tested for quality and purity, and they come from a certified GMP facility.

It comes in 3 flavors, but they are slightly bitter. It may help to mix it into flavored waters or sports drinks that can mask the taste.

Pros

  • ● 3 flavor choices
  • ● An affordable option
  • ● Keto and vegan friendly
  • ● Gluten-free
  • ● The facility is GMP certified
  • ● A lower dose of caffeine
  • ● Ingredients are tested for quality and purity

Cons

  • ● People with a caffeine sensitivity may still have trouble with the caffeine content
  • ● Be careful with products containing BioPerine if you take medications
  • ● May need to mix with beverages that mask bitter flavors

Recap

Transparent Labs pre-workout steals the show with its transparency and clinically-backed ingredients. Their devotion to quality is unrivaled. They have earned the trust and loyalty of consumers for good reasons!

With that said, supplements aren’t one-size-fits-all. Choose a supplement that matches your goals, prioritize safety, and stay informed!

References

  1. Afsharian, P., Moini, A., Mokhtari, V., & Shahhoseini, M. (2016). A Review on Various Uses of N-Acetyl Cysteine PubMed Central (PMC)
  2. All About Carnitine Bodybuilding.com
  3. Barnhart, E. (2017). Taurine: The Real Deal Or Just A Bunch Of Bull? Bodybuilding.com
  4. Bellar, D., Campbell, B., & LeBlanc, N. (2015). The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  5. Bloomer, R., Joyner, K., & Kuhman, D. (2015). Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  6. Cholewa, J., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., & Wood, R. et al. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone BioMed Central
  7. Clifford, T., Howatson, G., West, D., & Stevenson, E. (2015). The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  8. D’Aniello, A., D’Aniello, G., Topo, E., Soricelli, A., & Ronsini, S. (2009). The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  9. W. AGMATINE Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings Webmd.com
  10. W. Alpha-Gpc Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning Webmd.com
  11. W. Huperzine A Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning Webmd.com
  12. Frank, K., Patel, K., Lopez, G., & Willis, B. (2020). Rhodiola Rosea Research Analysis Examine.com
  13. Frank, K., Patel, K., Lopez, G., & Willis, B. (2019). Yohimbine Research Analysis Examine.com
  14. Jakeman, P., & Pérez-Guisado, J. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness – PubMed – NCBI Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  15. Platt, A. (2020). BCAA Benefits: All you need to know Supps Advisor
  16. Platt, A. (2020). Top Benefits of Creatine a thorough Guide and Usage Supps Advisor
  17. Staff, N. (2019). 2019-20 NCAA Banned Substances NCAA.org – The Official Site of the NCAA
  18. Staff P. Carnosine Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  19. Staff p. Theobromine Phytochemicals.info